Oliver Cromwell Fact File Biography: Lifespan: 1599 - 1658 *** Full Name: Oliver Cromwell *** Nickname: Old Ironsides *** Occupation: English Military and Political Leader, Lord Protectorate of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland *** Date of Birth: Oliver Cromwell was born on April 25th 1599 *** Place of Birth: Oliver Cromwell was born in Huntingdon, England *** Family background: His father was Robert Cromwell and his mother was Elizabeth Steward. His family background was a prominent one, related to Thomas Cromwell one of Henry VIIIís ministers and who profited from the Reformation *** Early life and childhood: He grew up as the only surviving son of ten children *** Education: Oliver Cromwell attended Huntingdon Grammar School and would go on to Sidney Sussex College in Cambridge ***
Oliver Cromwell Fact 1: Oliver Cromwell was born in April 25th 1599 at the turn of 17th century in a time of political and religious upheaval.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 2: It is thought he went through an emotional crisis seeking medical assistance from a London doctor during the late 1620ís early 1630ís.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 3: By 1631 Oliver Cromwell had decided to sell his holdings in Huntingdon and relocated to St Ives.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 4: During this period Oliver Cromwell had also devoted his life to becoming a Puritan.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 5: This act alone caused a significant step down in social standing but that would be altered when he was the recipient of an inheritance from his motherís uncle which would elevate his status enough that he established significant family ties to important families in Essex and London.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 6: By 1628 Oliver Cromwell had become a Member of Parliament for Huntingdon but that only lasted the one year as the King dissolved Parliament and ruled the next eleven years without one.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 7: In 1640 Oliver Cromwell decided to move his family to London.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 8: Between 1642 and 1646 Oliver Cromwell took part in the First English Civil War with his only experience being in the local county militia.Oliver Cromwell Fact 15: Oliver Cromwell later went north to put down the pro-Royalist Scottish Army. At Preston, with a command of 9,000 men a decisive victory was won.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 9: His first real experience of conflict came at the Battle of Gainsborough and would be promoted to colonel of the Eastern Association and governor of Ely.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 10: After the Battle of Marston Moor he would become Lieutenant General of horse in the Earl of Manchesterís army.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 11: By 1645 the Self Denying Ordinance was passed by Parliament in order to force the members of the Lords and the House of Commons to pick between military command or civil office. Cromwell would be the only exception and by 1645 the New Model Army was formed.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 12: The critical Battle of Naseby would be a victory for the New Model Army which went on to succeed at Bridgwater, Bristol, Devizes, Winchester and Sherborne.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 13: Between 1647 and 1649 the politics took over from the battles and a large part of the New Model Army was disbanded.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 14: When by 1648 no resolution had been struck the Second English Civil War broke out in which Oliver Cromwell put down an uprising in South Wales.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 16: In 1648 a situation to become known as Prideís Purge took place preventing members of Parliament in league with the King were forbidden from taking part and the Rump, the remaining Members agreed on the charges of treason be laid on the Charles. He was executed on January 30th 1649.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 17: The Commonwealth of England was established but the Royalist would regroup in Ireland.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 18: His personal views meant that he was opposed to the Irish not only politically but religiously as he was wholly against Catholicism.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 19: After Ireland Oliver Cromwell was posted to Scotland where the Scots had proclaimed Charles II as King.
Oliver Cromwell Fact 20: By 1653 he was politically in control of England, Ireland and Scotland as the Lord Protector and would remain so until his death on September 3rd, 1658 at Whitehall. His body laid to rest at Westminster Abbey and his son Richard took over as Lord Protectorate.
Influence & Legacy: Although Oliver Cromwell would be one party of many that would ultimately be responsible for the removal of the monarchy, he would also be responsible for bringing England back as one of the leading powers of Europe from the decline it had suffered after the death of Elizabeth I.