Czar Nicholas II Fact File Biography: Lifespan: 1868 - 1918 *** Full Name: Nikolai Alexandrovich Romanov *** Also known as: Czar Nicholas II, Czar Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias, Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church and Saint Nicholas the Martyr *** Nickname: Nicholas the Bloody *** Occupation: Last Czar of Russia *** Date of Birth: Czar Nicholas II was born on May 18th 1868 *** Place of Birth: Czar Nicholas II was born in Alexander Palace, Saint Petersburg *** Family background: *** Early life and childhood: He grew up with quite a large extended family *** Education: Czar Nicholas II began his education privately tutored.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 1: Czar Nicholas II was born on May 18th 1968 in Alexander Palace, Tsarskoye Selo, Saint Petersburg. His father was Emperor Alexander III of Russia and his mother was Empress Maria Feodorovna formerly Princess Dagmar of Denmark. He had five siblings, Alexander, George, Xenia, Michael and Olga.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 2: There were familial ties to Royal families across Europe, including Kings Frederik VIII of Denmark and George I of Greece. Queen Alexandra wife of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom and Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany were all first cousins. The family were also related to King Haakon VII and Queen Maud of Norway, King Constantine I of Greece
Czar Nicholas II Fact 3: During his early childhood he stood as third in line to the throne. His grandfather Czar Alexander II was ruling at this time but in March of 1881 he was assassinated when meant his father became Czar Alexander III meaning Nicholas became Tsesarevich.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 4: At the Winter Palace in 1884 Nicholas attended his coming of age ceremony. He also swore his loyalty to Czar Alexander II, his father.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 5: Later that same year his uncle Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich married the Princess Elizabeth of Hesse-Darmstadt and while attending their wedding he made the acquaintance of Alexandra Feodorovna (Princess Alix of Hesse-Darmstadt), the bride’s younger sister who at that time was on twelve years of age. Alix was a granddaughter of Queen Victoria.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 6: Five years later the young pair met again and their feelings for each other blossomed but there was a giant obstacle in their way, Alix was a devout Lutheran and at first refused to convert to the Russian Orthodox religion and so was unable to accept his proposal. Having been advised by her brother-in-law that it was her duty to convert Alix was able to accept the proposal of Nicholas.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 7: Alexander III of Russia died on November 1st 1894 and his son was consecrated by his father’s priest as Czar Nicholas II. Alexandra Feodorovna (Alix of Hesse) became the wife of Emperor Nicholas II on on 26 November 1894. Alexandra gave Czar Nicholas II the courage and confidence and he needed after the sudden death of his father.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 8: Czar Nicholas II and Alexandra had five children, four girls called Tatiana, Olga, Maria, Anastasia and a boy called Alexis. There marriage was a happy one but blighted by the terrible illness of their son Alexis the heir to the throne. Alexis was born with an incurable bleeding disease called hemophilia.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 9: The autocratic Czar Nicholas II and his curt, German wife Alexandra were never popular with the Russian people. Life was hard for the Russian peasants. Unprepared and untrained for leadership, Czar Nicholas II was a totally autocratic ruler.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 10: Czar Nicholas II encouraged Russian expansion in Manchuria provoking an unsuccessful war against Japan in 1904. The resulting Russian defeat led to protests, strikes and riots. The people were unhappy with the rule of Czar Nicholas II and in 1905 the Bloody Sunday revolution broke out in St. Petersburg. Czar Nicholas quickly put an end to the uprising and failed to take heed of the revolutionary mood in Russia.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 11: In 1905 Rasputin, a Russian holy man, healer and mystic, was introduced into the Russian aristocracy and the Romanov royal family. Rasputin gained great influence over Alexandra as he was the only person who was able to help and ease the pain of her sick son, Alexis. Rasputin was not a good man, he was a drunkard and womanizer. As his influence over the Romanov royal family grew so did the hatred of the Russian people.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 12: The outbreak of World War I (28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918) was a pivotal moment for Russia, Czar Nicholas II and Alexandra. Czar Nicholas II approved the mobilization of the Russian military. The incompetence of the High Command contributed to the fall of Czar Nicholas II and the Russian Royal family.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 13: Grigori Rasputin was seen by the Russian aristocracy and Russian peasants as "the dark force" that was ruining Mother Russia. During the night and early morning of December 29-30, 1916, Grigory Rasputin was murdered by Russian nobles eager to end his influence and save the Russian royal family.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 14: By 1917 Russia was suffering heavy losses in WWI and there were severe food shortages and terrible poverty at home. In February 1917, widespread demonstrations began in the capital St Petersburg known as the February Revolution of 1917. Czar Nicholas II lost the support of the army and had no alternative but to abdicate on 15 March 1917 and a provisional government was established in Russia.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 15: The whole of the royal Romanov family were taken prisoner. They were originally held in the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoye Selo and after that at the Governor’s Mansion in Tobolsk. On April 30th 1918 Czar Nicholas II and his family were moved for the final time to the town of Yekaterinburg where they took up residence in Ipatieve House, a two story property. were finally held at Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg and forced to live on soldiers rations.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 16: Desperate to get his family to safety Czar Nicholas II wished to exile in the United Kingdom and although his request was originally accepted by the British government King George V, acting on advice he had been given, overruled the offer.Czar Nicholas II Fact 17: In October 1917, the Bolsheviks overthrew the provisional Russian government. Russia withdrew from WWI and by March 1918 Russia descended into civil war.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 18: On 17 July 1918, as anti-Bolsheviks approached Yekaterinburg, the order to execute Czar Nicholas II and the Romanov royal family was given, almost certainly, on the orders of the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 19: In the early hours of the morning of July 17th 1918 the Romanov royal family including Czar Nicholas II, Alexandra and their children, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia and Alexei were woken up and told to dress and make ready to have their photograph taken.
Czar Nicholas II Fact 20: The Romanov royal family, headed by Czar Nicholas II, were herded to the basement of the building. They were accompanied by Nicholas’ private doctor Eugene Botkin, his wife Anna Demidova, Ivan Kharitonov the chef and the footman Alexei Trupp. Czar Nicholas was the first to be shot followed by the rest of the family. Those that did not die from gunshot wounds were stabbed to death by bayonets and then shot in the head.
Short Facts about Czar Nicholas II for Kids
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