King John I Fact File Biography: Lifespan: 1166 – 1216 *** Full Name: King John I was also known as John Lackland *** Date of Birth (Birthday): He was born on December 24, 1166 *** Place of Birth: King John I was born in Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England *** Family background: His father was King Henry II *** Early life and childhood: King John I grew up and spent the majority of his life in London *** King John I died on October 18, 1216 ***
King John I Fact 1: John was born on December 24, 1166 at Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England.
King John I Fact 2: He was a King of England who was well known for the sealing of the Magna Carta; a charter declaring peace among a group of rebel barons and King John I.
King John I Fact 3: He was born into a noble medieval family, his parents were King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, the former wife of King Louis VII of France. They didn't play a great part in John's childhood. He was left in the care of a wet nurse along with his siblings.
King John I Fact 4: He was fairly short, measuring approximately 5ft 5in, he had dark red hair and a strong body. He was known being generous, accommodating and humorous, but jealously could get the better of him and at times, he was prone to outbursts of anger.
King John I Fact 5: He was taught by an English administrator called Ranulph Glanville. He was fond of reading and managed to creat his own library of books. He enjoyed hunting, music and gambling, especially backgammon.
King John I Fact 6: His father, King Henry II, nicknamed him 'Lackland' as it didn't seem likely that John would inherit any land. Henry was young when he became the King of England and he hadn't been given much power by his father. King John I was the youngest of Henry II’s sons.
King John I Fact 7: He was the youngest son of Henry II, having four older brothers. There was no love lost between any of the ambitious brothers. After his brothers failed rebellions, John became his father's favourite son. In 1177, Henry II made John the Lord of Ireland, and he gave him lands in England and Europe.
King John I Fact 8: Three of his four elder brothers died, leaving his only surviving older brother, Richard, and Henry as potential heirs to the throne. Richard was crowned King in 1189 making John next in line.
King John I Fact 9: He planned an unsuccessful rebellion against his King Richard I of England's royal administrators during the period when Richard was fighting the Crusades. Richard the Lionheart died in 1199.
King John I Fact 10: Following the death of King Richard I, John was crowned King of England in 1199. King Philip of France agreed to acknowledge his ownership of the continental Angevin lands. Both kings signed the Treaty of Le Goulet in 1200.
King John I Fact 11: An Anglo-French War broke out in 1202 which initially brought King John I of England a number of victories. However, his military resources were limited which eventually led to a collapsed Empire.
King John I Fact 12: He lost the Duchy of Normandy after the battle of Bouvines. The title was given to the rulers of the Duchy of Normandy in France. He was succeeded by King Philip II of France.
King John I Fact 13: The loss of the Anglo-French War left the empire separated. Many French provinces had been lost during the battle including Anjou and Normandy. The Angevin Empire collapsed which resulted in the growth of the House of France (Capetian dynasty).
King John I Fact 14: He attempted to strengthen his army and spent many years trying to regain the lands that he had previously lost. His reform of the country's judiciary greatly influenced the English common law system.
King John I Fact 15: In 1209, he began a dispute with Pope Innocent III which resulted in excommunication. The argument lasted for approximately four years and was finally resolved by King John I in 1213.
King John I Fact 16: Towards the end of his reign, King John I of England agreed a charter which was drafted by the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Great Charter is known as the Magna Carta. It declared peace among a group of rebel barons and King John I. Some of the main purposes of the Magna Carta were to protect church rights, and to prevent barons from being imprisoned illegally.
King John I Fact 17: Despite having agreed to the Magna Carta, neither the rebel barons nor John I cooperated or complied with the conditions it set out.King John I Fact 18: The civil war, known as the First Baron's War, broke out in 1215 and lasted for approximately one year and a half. It was led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by an army under control of King Louis VIII of France.
King John I Fact 19: He reigned over England until his death in 1216 when he was succeeded by his 9 year old son who became King Henry III of England and reigned from 1216 to 1272.
King John I Fact 20: King John died on October 18, 1216, the cause of death is unconfirmed, some believe that he may have been poisoned. He was buried in Worcester Cathedral in England.
Influence & Legacy of King John I: King John I of England reigned from 1199 to 1216. His father was King Henry II and his mother was a wealthy, powerful woman called Eleanor of Aquitaine. King John I is well known for sealing an important document known as the Magna Carta.
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